Sep 08

Peter Zeile, Antônio Nélson Rodrigues da Silva, Georgios Papastefanou, Fabíola de Oliveira Aguiar, Benjamin Sebastian Bergner

Ein Konferenzbeitrag auf der diesjährigen CUPUM(Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management) in Kanada der Fachgebiete CPE (TU Kaiserslautern) in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Estadual Do Maranhão in Bazilien und dem GESIS Leibniz Institute für Sozialwissenschaften in Mannheim zum Smart Sensoring zur Unterstützung des barrierefreien Planens.

As more and more people face mobility constraints due to the natural aging process of the population, barrier-free-planning becomes an important urban planning issue. There are two different research approaches for integrating these needs in an objective, bottom-up and sensor based planning process. A core element is the use of the ambulatory assessment methods in combination with GPS-sensor data. The result is a planning instrument for identifying and optimizing city spatial barriers for handicapped people. This “bottom-up-approach” is based on research fields of barrier-specified city planning, subjective well-being and the field of emotional research. It is elemental to know the place of spatial barriers associated with the negative emotion – the “stress” of probands. To achieve this, the new method of psycho-physiological monitoring is utilized in two projects, using a special technical device to measure autonomic bodily functions as indicators for emotions – the Smartband. The first project, named EmbaGIS (Emotional-Barrier-GIS), aims at the measurement of the emotional component of handicapped people (two target groups: users with visual and walking troubles) in the context of barriers, geo- and time located in a GI-System. The result is a psycho-physiological monitoring, which can help to identify city spatial barriers in a personal view of handicapped people. The objective of the second project is to formulate an evaluation model for mapping the relative accessibility of pedestrians’ pathways, in which the potential mobility conditions of particular users groups were taken into account. The proposed model is initially based on a multicriteria evaluation, which is subsequently adjusted to show levels of relative accessibility. The method was applied in two university campuses, and one of the validation processes was based on field results obtained with the Smartband. The main characteristics of both projects are presented and their outcomes are thoroughly discussed in the paper.

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Jun 15
Jan-Philipp Exner, Peter Zeile, Bernd Streich

Human as Sensors

Continuous observation and monitoring of developments and changes in quality of spatial phenomena has always been a central task in the urban, spatial and environmental planning at various scales. Similar to the discussion about “Web 2.0″, “monitoring” will be used in a very intense discussion of innovative planning methods. It means observation of a phenomenon over a longer period, with the result of using the knowledge gained on forecasts for a reactive or constructive control. As mentioned in the conference topic, cities, regions and spatial phenomenas do have changes and lifecycles. Though, what are changes and how could they be identified and measured? Monitoring of these issues could be the key to that and will gain more importance in the future of planning. Observation processes and furthermore, issues like smart cities and energy efficiency gains incremental importance in the context of urban planning. The amount of potential useable data for planners is growing and there will the question how to make use of it. Especially the upcoming presence and rise of sensor data will contribute to that. In times of the GeoWeb, the use of mobile based planning methods for communication and collecting data, GPS, tracking, the analysis of time in spatial planning and “smart sensoring” will gain importance: How humans can be used as an “intelligent sensor” for a better planning through the use of smartphones for example. Issues like inductive monitoring and crowdsourcing in this context with the potentials of social communities together with location based services (social geography) will be observed as well. The task for planners will be to identify what kind of data is important and how to deal with heterogeneous data in general and how to interpret it. However, there will be a lot of research for the question, what role planners could play on this interface between real and digital world. This study will give an overview about new fields of research for planners and how monitoring in this spatial and urban planning context could be used wisely.

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