Sep 08

Peter Zeile, Antônio Nélson Rodrigues da Silva, Georgios Papastefanou, Fabíola de Oliveira Aguiar, Benjamin Sebastian Bergner

Ein Konferenzbeitrag auf der diesjährigen CUPUM(Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management) in Kanada der Fachgebiete CPE (TU Kaiserslautern) in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universität Estadual Do Maranhão in Bazilien und dem GESIS Leibniz Institute für Sozialwissenschaften in Mannheim zum Smart Sensoring zur Unterstützung des barrierefreien Planens.

As more and more people face mobility constraints due to the natural aging process of the population, barrier-free-planning becomes an important urban planning issue. There are two different research approaches for integrating these needs in an objective, bottom-up and sensor based planning process. A core element is the use of the ambulatory assessment methods in combination with GPS-sensor data. The result is a planning instrument for identifying and optimizing city spatial barriers for handicapped people. This “bottom-up-approach” is based on research fields of barrier-specified city planning, subjective well-being and the field of emotional research. It is elemental to know the place of spatial barriers associated with the negative emotion – the “stress” of probands. To achieve this, the new method of psycho-physiological monitoring is utilized in two projects, using a special technical device to measure autonomic bodily functions as indicators for emotions – the Smartband. The first project, named EmbaGIS (Emotional-Barrier-GIS), aims at the measurement of the emotional component of handicapped people (two target groups: users with visual and walking troubles) in the context of barriers, geo- and time located in a GI-System. The result is a psycho-physiological monitoring, which can help to identify city spatial barriers in a personal view of handicapped people. The objective of the second project is to formulate an evaluation model for mapping the relative accessibility of pedestrians’ pathways, in which the potential mobility conditions of particular users groups were taken into account. The proposed model is initially based on a multicriteria evaluation, which is subsequently adjusted to show levels of relative accessibility. The method was applied in two university campuses, and one of the validation processes was based on field results obtained with the Smartband. The main characteristics of both projects are presented and their outcomes are thoroughly discussed in the paper.

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Jun 15
Benjamin Sebastian Bergner, Peter Zeile, Georgios Papastefanou, Werner Rech, Bernd Streich

Smartband and GPS-Logger

More and more people are handicapped, because of a certain disabilities or the natural aging in the course of the enormous demographic change in industrial countries. Thus barrier-free-planning is a concrete goal in the German urban planning system. The research work at hand “methodical and practical foundation for the establishment of the EmBaGIS” deals with the development of a new, innovative planning instrument to identify and optimize urban spatial barriers for handicapped people. The concrete aim includes a conscious composition of the planning specified “top-down-“and bottom-up-approach” with the target to activate handicapped people in a participative method. The “bottom-up-approach” is based on a broad theoretical foundation, including the research fields of barrier-specified urban planning, subjective well-being and the field of emotional research. The question to the point is: How can we mark and evaluate urban spatial barriers in a valid and objective way to the concrete advantage of urban planning authority? In order to indentify barriers in the eye of the persons concerned, it is vital to know when and where a urban spatial barrier produces negative emotional reactions, e.g. a stress reaction. To achieve this, psycho-physiological monitoring is at the core of an Emotional Barrier GIS (EmBaGIS), using a sensor wristband to unobtrusively measure autonomic bodily functions as indicators for emotional reactions. Additionally, a GPS-Logger indicates the geographic position of the measured negative emotions. This approach was evaluated in two studies, concerning in the first study visually impaired and blind people (n=39), in the second study people with walking disabilities (n=21). Empirically, EmBaGIS is based on an “Empirical Three-Level-Analysis” to identify emotionally significant barriers. The first level is the measurement of the speed of movement. The hypothesis is raised that a decrease of kinetic walking energy is a first sign for the impact with a spatial barrier. On a second level skin conductance responses, indicating heightened attention demand, are described and on the third level skin temperature changes are used as indicators for stress. The results of our empirical studies show, that the EmBaGIS, based on psycho-physiological monitoring, adds to the identification of urban spatial barriers. By this experiences of handicapped people can be taken into consideration for urban planning processes.

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